Many educated Catholics had wanted change – for example, Erasmus and Luther himself, and they were willing to recognise faults within the Papacy. MATT SLICK LIVE RADIOCall in with your questions at 877-207-22763-4pm PST; 4-5pm MST; 6-7pm ESTWatch on FacebookPast Shows Radio PodcastRadio Show SurveySubscribe to CARM Radio, CARM wishlistWant to help CARM in a different way? The Reformation catalyzed the secularization of music and art. One development is clear: the political authorities increasingly sought to curtail the public role of the church and thereby triggered tension. Roman Catholic leadership was also plagued by corruption, manifesting itself in practices like:20. This alone was quickly leading to a wide variety of changes, from the goods people used to their grander view of the world and their plac… Asked by Wiki User. Some of the Reformers themselves came to their positions because they had access to a Greek New Testament thanks to Erasmus and the printing press.27  Erasmus's text would later be a key resource for the reformers in producing their common-language translations of the Bible in various lands. 8 9 10. Huldrych Zwingli, detail of an oil portrait by Hans Asper, 1531; in the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland. (See Researcher’s Note.). What about faith alone and protestants before the Reformation. It was relatively easy to stamp out reform movements of the past. Portrait of John Calvin by Henriette Rath; in the collection of the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva. Herein, what was the Reformation and why did it happen? Why did it happen? The Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. the early 16th century, a scholar named Erasmus objected to several issues in the Roman Catholic Church, which at the time was the entire Church. The Protestant Reformation was a widespread theological revolt in Europe against the abuses and totalitarian control of the Roman Catholic Church. Huldrych Zwingli built a Christian theocracy in Zürich in which church and state joined for the service of God. The Reformation, a 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority promoted by Martin Luther, King Henry VIII and others, led to the Thirty Years War and the Counter-Reformation. Ken Hensley. He hadn't. The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. Why did the Reformation happen? at Cram.com. Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and…, …what differentiated him from previous reformers was that they attacked the life of the church while he confronted its doctrine. This led some to leave for the growing cities, shifting life toward urbanization. More People Reading the Bible During the Middle Ages, few people other than monks and priests knew how to read and write. Does Sola Scriptura mean that all Protestants must agree on everything? In England the Reformation’s roots were both political and religious. The deal involved financing both plans through the sale of indulgences in Germany.30 When Luther chose that particular time to post his 95 theses challenging the theology behind the sale of indulgences, he was unwittingly walking into a political firestorm. )have been prevented? The discovery of the American continents, for example, occurred just over two decades earlier in 1492. Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacy, had become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe. The Reformation is said to have begun when Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517. Jesus lived a perfect life and offers us His own merit and righteousness. The Reformation began as an affirmation of something. Gravity. Martin Luther precipitated the Reformation with his critiques of both the practices and the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. People have devoted entire careers to this sort of thing! The Protestant Reformation was one of the most transformative events in church history. By mid century, Lutheranism dominated northern Europe. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, and the Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops. This diminished the political power and influence of certain lords and monasteries while giving rise to a merchant class,2 on the one hand, and to stronger monarchies on the other,3 who were able to more completely consolidate their power unchecked by the weakening lords. The Reformation happened because there was … Why Luther? Oh my, what a huge question! Spell. For most people, the church continued to offer spiritual comfort. Known as Socinians, after the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland. Germany - Germany - The Reformation: The Reformation presents the historian with an acute instance of the general problem of scholarly interpretation—namely, whether events are shaped primarily by individuals or by the net of historical circumstances enmeshing them. The Reformation occurred during Renaissance times. The sale of indulgences in church; woodcut from the title page of Luther's pamphlet. Why did the Protestant Reformation happen? Finally, the recent invention of the printing press made it possible for ideas to spread and literacy to swell in a manner never before possible. 2010-12-06 15:54:56 2010-12-06 15:54:56. The harder Luther tried to be a righteous man, the more clear to him his sinfulness became, and all the confessions, pilgrimages, indulgences, and other rites and rituals he could perform were never enough. What happened in the decades that followed? Lithograph of Martin Luther reading in church. The Reformation began in 1517 when a German monk called Martin Luther protested about the Catholic Church. Over time, Luther began to see biblical and theological problems with certain practices in the church, such as the veneration of relics and the sale of indulgences. There is no single, simple cause one can point to as to why the men like Martin Luther succeeded in launching a thriving Reformation while men with similar insights in previous generations had, at best, accomplished only local and temporary reform movements. For a discussion of the religious doctrine, see Protestantism. In 1521 Luther was excommunicated; what began as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom. This video, produced by Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation, discusses the Reformation and its leader Martin Luther, whose grievances against the Roman Catholic Church produced a chain of events that left a profound impact on religion and politics. The first was that the church in Western Europe, which was theoretically united under the authority of the pope in Rome, was in crisis. It needed to be a return to the actual teachings of Jesus and the Apostles. The Reformation is a period of time between 1517 and 1648 AD in which a group of people, known as the “Reformers” rejected the authority of the Catholic church as the sole arbiter of doctrine and behavior believing that Scripture alone should be the foundation of the … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Because of corruption in the Catholic Church, some people saw that the way it worked needed to change. The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented. The Reformation was a clash of two opposed schemes of salvation. Reformers and Reformations: Why Did the Reformation Happen? Test. Why did the Reformation happen? He saw four major discrepancies between what the Church was teaching and what Scripture actually taught The Reformation did not begin as a refutation of something. Get an answer for 'Why did the Reformation begin in Germany? The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Whereas they denounced the sins of churchmen, he was disillusioned by the whole scholastic scheme of redemption. To understand their origins, we need to go back to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe under the leadership of the Pope in Rome. One important reason for the Reformation was Personal. Indeed, Luther does not appear to have fully realized the chasm between what he had found in the Scriptures and the formal teaching of Rome until some time later.29. The resulting intrigues and political manipulations, combined with the church’s increasing power and wealth, contributed to the bankrupting of the church as a spiritual force. Answer. Why were such massive changes instigated by this single event? The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16th century. What political and social factors contributed to its success?' The idea that the Reformation introduced schism into an otherwise unified church is a laughable claim. For others, it led to unrest and increasingly frequent peasant revolts.5. The greatest leaders of the Reformation undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. The Catholic Reformation was the intellectual counter-force to Protestantism. The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church. Today there are many types of Protestant churches. His followers became known as Protestants. While he did not intend to break with the Catholic church, a confrontation with the papacy was not long in coming. For further treatment of the Reformation, see Protestantism, history of. Rather than shrinking from the crisis, the Catholic Church responded with even deeper, and more genuine, reform, accomplished by many defenders of the Faith whom we now know as saints. It needed to be a return to the word of God. Flashcards. It led to that, but it didn't start there. Religious changes that happened in Europe in the 16th Century. The Reformation led to the reformulation of certain basic tenets of Christian belief and resulted in the division of Western Christendom between Roman Catholicism and the new Protestant traditions. Death was also being dealt out by inquisitors in rapidly increasing numbers. The nations were groaning for a reformation, but ironically, Martin Luther was not originally setting out to provide one. Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Why did the Protestant Reformation happen? The Feudal Lords themselves were claiming ownership of the once public streams and forests on which the peasants depended for fish, game, foraged foods, and firewood.4  These necessities of life, which peasants had previously gathered for free, now belonged to their lords and came at a cost which many peasants could not pay. The spread of Protestantism in areas that had previously been Roman Catholic had far … Posted by Tony - Antonakis Maritis January 12, 2020 Leave a comment on Why did the Protestant reformation happen? In Geneva, Calvin was able to experiment with his ideal of a disciplined community of the elect. For any reformation to matter, it couldn't be a mere moral tweaking of things. Eventually, Luther was sent to serve as a professor at the newly established University in Wittenberg. Match. As new research began into ancient writings, a number of important documents that had long been used to uphold the supremacy of the Pope and other Medieval dogmas were exposed as frauds.24 Additionally, Greek manuscripts of the Bible made their way from the east to the Latin west, leading many scholars to note the flaws in the Vulgate and to study the Bible in general with a more critical eye, apart from the artificial lens of official Roman Catholic positions.25 Many began to realize that at least some of the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic church were actually late developments found nowhere in the Bible or the early church fathers.26 When a scholar named Erasmus published an edition of the Greek New Testament (paired with a fresh Latin translation) based on the Greek Manuscripts, this provided a crucial resource for those asking these questions. The Reformation was a huge change within the Church in the C16th. The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation happened in the 16th century or Tudor period when King Henry VIII was on the throne. In spite of its political implications, the reorganization of the church permitted the beginning of religious change in England, which included the preparation of a liturgy in English, the Book of Common Prayer. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Corrections? Read Free How The Reformation Happened Frequently the Reformation is described as a movement that revolved around two pivotal issues. A message about the true gospel and the hope of eternal life is always relevant to every person, but one can imagine it being easier to shrug such truths off in times of comfort, safety, or abundance than in days when death hangs in the air every moment. Abuses such as the sale of indulgences (or spiritual privileges) by the clergy and other charges of corruption undermined the church’s spiritual authority. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Created by. In Basel, Switzerland, Calvin brought out the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536, the first systematic, theological treatise of the new reform movement. In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdam, a great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher. It began as a simple but profound return to the truth that we are dreadfully sinful, God is perfectly holy, and thus our works can contribute nothing to our salvation. There is some evidence of anticlericalism, but the church at large enjoyed loyalty as it had before. The … Luther had rejected the Catholic church’s doctrine of transubstantiation, according to which the bread and wine in Holy Communion became the actual body and blood of Christ. The desire for reform within the Catholic Church had started before the spread of Luther. There were many reasons why he made this change, some were personal, others were economic, political and religious. The value of individual labor, the distribution of skills, and a host of other factors greatly shift when so many working-age men are dying suddenly in mass from wars and disease. As Luther embraced the biblical gospel of grace and studied the Scriptures, such things appeared inconsistent with the revealed word of God. But Luther, in his zealous pursuit of peace with God, was keenly aware that any immorality whatsoever in his thoughts, words, and deeds condemned him in the presence of a Holy God. If you have any issues, please call the office at 385-246-1048 or email us at info@carm.org. Henry VIII, incensed by Pope Clement VII’s refusal to grant him an annulment of his marriage, repudiated papal authority and in 1534 established the Anglican church with the king as the supreme head. Here lay the key to Luther’s concerns for the ethical and theological reform of the church: Scripture alone is authoritative (sola scriptura) and justification is by faith (sola fide), not by works. PLAY. For all this, the Protestant Movement was not started by a man who set out to change the world. This haunted him. Having far-reaching political, economic, and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. Much of the continent was beginning to transition from a feudal (land-based) economy to a monetary (money and commodity based) economy. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion. The printing press fueled the fire, as printers distributed copies of the 95 theses widely, both in the original Latin and in a German translation.31 Just a little earlier in history, these theses would have been debated locally by a few scholars or completely ignored. Learn. The Protestant Reformation began as a return to God's Word as the final authority in the Christian faith and a proclamation that justification is by grace alone through faith alone. How and why did the Reformation happen? Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The high death tolls of the middle ages had completely re-shaped life and values in Europe, but the Reformation came just afterward during a time of optimism when life was being rebuilt throughout the continent. Protestant Reformation Causes: The Protestant Reformation began in 1517 and challenged the Catholic Church's authority on a number of fronts. Who Made it Happen? 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