As of May 2013, 191 countries and one regional economic organization (EC) had ratified the agreement, accounting for more than 61.6% of the 1990 emissions of Annex I countries. [97] One of the 191 states that ratified it – Canada – renounced the Protocol. In 2004, COP 10 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The parties have begun to discuss adjustment options. The parties "referred to and adopted numerous decisions and conclusions on issues related to technology development and transfer; land use, land use change and forestry; the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC; the national communication of [industrialized countries]; capacity-building; accommodation and response measures; and Article 6 of the UNFCCC (Education, Training and Public Awareness), which addresses adaptation and mitigation issues, the needs of least developed countries (DDCs) and future strategies to combat climate change. In several large developing countries and fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran), greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly (PBL, 2009). [116] For example, emissions in China increased sharply between 1990 and 2005, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Annex I countries are still well below those in developed countries. Countries that are not included in Annex I do not have quantitative emission reduction commitments, but they are required to take mitigation measures. China, for example, has a national policy agenda to reduce emissions growth that includes shutting down old, less efficient coal-fired power plants. The CFR World101 Library explains everything you need to know about climate change. Conferences of the Parties (COP)The highest decision-making body of the UNFCCC is the annual Conference of the Parties (COP). All Contracting Parties to the Convention may participate.

Representatives of industry, international organizations, interest groups and associations shall have observer status. 2012 – COP 18 was held in Doha, Qatar. The Parties agreed to extend the expiring Kyoto Protocol and create a second phase of commitment, which would start on 1 January 2013 and end on 31 December 2020. This is seen as a bridge to the enhanced Durban Programme of Action, which was adopted in 2011 and is expected to enter into force in 2020. The parties have failed to find a way to allocate $100 billion a year to developing countries by 2020 to finance adaptation to climate change, as agreed at COP 15 in Copenhagen. The concept of "loss and damage" was introduced when developed countries pledged to help developing countries and small island States pay for the loss and damage caused by climate change that they are already suffering. In October 2018, the IPCC released a special report on the effects of global warming of 1.5°C, noting that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, profound and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society. .

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