12. As a general rule, a national agreement is a single collective agreement between a national employer with several organizations (such as General Motors) and the union representing the employer`s workers. The agreement is mandatory for all entities in which the union represents workers. Workers may also attempt to negotiate at the national level on the basis of several employers, but employer participation is voluntary. A model agreement is an agreement in principle with an employer that sets wages, benefits and other conditions of employment that the union then passes on to other employers of workers represented by the union in an attempt to convince other employers to follow the model. There is no legal obligation for an employer to accept a model agreement, but only to negotiate in good faith. A main contract is a negotiated agreement between a union and an employer or group of employers that set wages, benefits and other terms of employment for all workers who are covered by the agreement – workers who can work in many establishments for many employers (for example. B construction workers). An agreement on several employers is, as the name suggests, an agreement between a union representing workers from different employers and those employers who agree to negotiate together and be bound by the same agreement.

These different categories of negotiation may overlap; A main contract may be, for example, a multi-employer contract or a national agreement. Continuity of the Effects of Collective Agreements The normative effect of collective agreements means that their provisions automatically replace provisions in individual employment contracts that are less favourable to workers (Article 14 of the Employment Contracts Act). The content of a new agreement may deteriorate more favourable conditions if these conditions have been included in individual contracts resulting from a previous agreement, replaced by the new agreement (which is now applicable and introduced), provided that the new agreement contains a clause expressly stipulating that it is generally more favourable to workers (i.e. the "pejus derogation" under Article 15 of the Act). The provisions of collective agreements are therefore not a substitute for the provisions of certain contracts if they have been agreed directly between the parties to the individual contract and are more favourable to the worker. In other words, the acquired rights of workers on better terms of employment should not, in principle, be affected by a collective agreement, unless they were acquired on the basis of an earlier agreement, which was replaced by a subsequent agreement that dissolved it and which expressly contained a general clause of greater favour. If this is the case, the "conglobao" principle chosen by law as a criterion of greater ease means that one or the other particular aspect of the general conditions of employees can be aggravated (a situation characterized as infringement of acquired rights by derogation from a previous agreement). In the same article, the law also excludes the possibility of abolishing compulsory legislation or abolishing a certain type of supplementary social benefits. See also the arbitration award. One consequence of this decline in trade union strength is a corresponding decrease in the ability of trade unions in a given sector or sector to set general standards for pay and social benefits for a large percentage of workers in that sector or sector.

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